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考研英语:新题型之排序题得分之道

2021-09-02 14:15:01
2020考研英语新题型之排序题得分之道

 

新题型,即阅读理解B节,主要考查考生对诸如连贯性、一致性等语段特征以及文章结构的理解。在英语一中具体可分为三种备选题型:完型填句/段、段落排序题、小标题题。每次考试自备选题型中选取一种进行考查。新题型在考研英语中比较特别,与传统阅读的解题方法相比,其解题策略更加灵活,所以需要同学们掌握一定的方法。今天就跟随老师一起学习排序题的解题方法,希望能帮助大家在最后的冲刺阶段快速提分。

1、给出首段的排序题

按照首尾呼应的原则,依次排出其他段落。

排的过程中,可以从已知段落切入,找与它衔接紧密的段落,可依据已知段首句往上定位,或依据前面自己推出的段落向下排;

如果遇到明显的衔接词,可以根据这些衔接词做排除;

做不到一次性排出来,可以先进行组块,有些段一看就觉得应该一个前一个后,就可以先确定它们的连贯关系;

利用原词复现/近义复现等现象,比如上段提到某个单词或短语,这个单词或短语再次出现的话基本上就排在其后面。

排完之后要检验,顺读一遍,看思路对不对,每篇文章都有其脉络走向,比如提出问题/分析问题/解决问题,这是一种思路,按某种思路去检验,读不通可能就是填错了。

2、未给出首段的排序题

首先排首段,再重复上面的方法。

排首段其实比较容易,因为第一段一般不会转折,不会举例,不会出现代词等,一般也不含有最高级、第一或最后意思的词语,因为首段没有比较的对象。

       [A] “I just don't know how to motivate them to do a better job. We're in a budget crunch and I have absolutely no financial rewards at my disposal. In fact, we'll probably have to lay some people off in the near future. It's hard for me to make the job interesting and challenging because it isn't—it's boring, routine paperwork, and there isn't much you can do about it.”

[B] “Finally, I can't say to them that their promotions will hinge on the excellence of their paperwork. First of all, they knew it's not true. If their performance is adequate, most are more likely to get promoted just by staying on the force a certain number of years than for some specific outstanding act. Second, they were trained to do the job they do out in the streets, not to fill out forms. All through their career it is the arrests and interventions that get noticed.”

[C] “I've got a real problem with my officers. They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a beat. They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies.”

[D] “Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that's not fair—too many other things are involved. Bad paperwork increases the chance that you lose in court, but good paperwork doesn't necessarily mean you'll win. We tried setting up team competitions based on the excellence of the reports, but the guys caught on to that pretty quickly. No one was getting any type of reward for winning the competition, and they figured why should they labor when there was no payoff.”

[E] “The problem occurs when they get back to the station. They hate to do the paperwork, and because they dislike it, the job is frequently put off or done inadequately. This lack of attention hurts us later on when we get to court. We need clear, factual reports. They must be highly detailed and unambiguous. As soon as one part of a report is shown to be inadequate or incorrect, the rest of the report is suspect. Poor reporting probably causes us to lose more cases than any other factor.”   

[F] “So I just don't know what to do. I've been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work.”

[G] A large metropolitan city government was putting on a number of seminars for administrators, managers and/or executives of various departments throughout the city. At one of these sessions the topic to be discussed was motivation—how we can get public servants motivated to do a good job. The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion.

Order:  

G→ 41.     → 42.     →43.     → 44.     → 45.     → F

 

答案详解

  41. 【解析】[C] 按照答题步骤,我们首先应当对已知信息进行研读,即阅读首尾段,归纳语篇的基本结构,找出答题的线索。首段说的是整个文章的背景,一个大都市的市政厅举行全市各部门管理、行政人员的研讨会,其中有一个研讨会的主题是如何发动公务员做好工作。这个研讨会上一个警察局警长的难题成了讨论的焦点。尾段是一个引语:So I just don't know what to do. I've been groping in the dark in a number of years. And I hope that this seminar will shed some light on this problem of mine and help me out in my future work(所以我不知道该怎么办。多年来我一直在黑暗中探索。我希望这次研讨会能给我的难题带来些启发,能帮我应对未来的工作)。很明显,这是发言的总结句。结合第一段的内容,我们可以知道,引号里的话是警察局警长的话,而整篇文章主要讲的是他面临的难题。

  接着,我们看[A]到[E]段,哪一段是发言的起始段呢?这就要看是哪一段把讨论的话题引入。我们可以主要看每段的第一句话。我们会发现[C] 段第一句话直截了当地点出话题:I've got a real problem with my officers(警员们现在出现了问题),而且与首段的最后一句The difficulty of a police captain became the central focus of the discussion(这个研讨会上一个警察局警长的难题成了讨论的焦点)连接自然,因为首段的尾句提到了警察局长的difficulty(困难),后面的段落肯定会对这一困难作出解释,因此[C]段中的problem和首段的difficulty呼应,应当是正确答案。

  42. 【解析】[E] [C]段的第一句话I've got a real problem with my officers(警员们现在出现了问题)和后面的句子They come on the force as young, inexperienced men, and we send them out on the street, either in cars or on a heat. They seem to like the contact they have with the public, the action involved in crime prevention, and the apprehension of criminals. They also like helping people out at fires, accidents, and other emergencies(他们到大街上巡逻……,他们喜欢与公众交流……,他们也喜欢乐于助人……)两者在语义上是转折的。作者没有直接说警员们的问题是什么,而是在提出问题后先对他们进行了赞扬,但赞扬过后肯定要提出存在的问题是什么。按逻辑顺序,下一段落应该提出职员中存在的问题。按照这样的思路,我们在剩下的段落中寻找,可以发现下一段选[E]连接最自然。[C]段先表扬职员对公众的事积极、热心,但是“The problem occurs when they get back to the station”(一回到警局问题就出现了)。同时,从词汇衔接上来看,[E]段中的单词get back和上一段落中的out构成了对应关系,说明了警员们在警局外面和里面的不同表现,因此从这两个方面来看,选项[E]是正确答案。

  43. 【解析】[A] 选项[E]主要陈述了警员们存在的问题以及导致的后果:They hate to do the paperwork …Poor reporting probably cause us to lose more cases than any other factor(他们不喜欢写公文……更多时候是因为报告写得不好而在法庭上输了官司)。根据选项[E]最后一句话的语义,接下来作者要谈论的问题一定和此问题有关,因此可以对比剩余的三个选项[A]、[B]和[D],首先可以排除选项[D] Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion…,因为这个选项提出了评判警员的标准,是一个解决问题的办法,和前面提到的问题以及导致的结果在语义上不衔接。

  比较选项[A]和[B],选项[A]的首句I just don't know how to motivate them to do a better job,提出了警察局长在这个问题上的困惑,单词better是一个比较级,和前一个段落末句中的poor相呼应, 因此是正确答案。

  44. 【解析】[B] 从语义上来看,选项[A]是在说明警长的所遇到的问题和困惑,能够和选项[A]衔接的现在只剩下[B]和[D]。选项中[B]是解释无法实施解雇措施;选项[D]是说将撰写报告作为警员表现标准没有效果,可以看出,[B]和上段联系更为紧密,说了措施后马上就说出这种措施的不可实施的方面。

  45.【解析】[D]现在只剩下选项[D]。从文章最后一段,即选项[F]来看,此选项主要叙述的是警长向大家求助的信息,而选项[D]的开头的两句 Some people have suggested a number of things like using conviction records as a performance criterion. However, we know that's not fair—too many other things are involved是说虽然有人提出了建议,但这些措施是不可能被实施的。因为措施无效才会向别人求助,从逻辑关系看,选项[D]和最后一段,即选项[F] 形成了因果关系,因此是正确答案。

 

最后,给大家一个小建议,由于排序题是对语言能力和阅读理解能力的综合测试,因此每次做题后请及时总结文章结构类型,把握文章脉络以提高自己的应试能力


 

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