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英语语法小白?这十张表格可以帮到你!

2022-08-26 14:45:00

英语语法小白?这十张表格可以帮到你!

英语语法小白?这十张表格可以帮到你!

 

10大词类

实词

最重要的是实词有词形变化】

名词n. apple, desk

代词pron. he, she, they, yourself

形容词adj. beautiful, good, fair

数词num. one, first, second

动词v. study, play, twist

副词adv. often, simply, finally

虚词

【没有实在意义,不能独立承担句子成分】

冠词art. a, an, the

介词prep. in, on, at, to, from

连词conj. and, also, however

感叹词int. oh, aha

 

句子成分

主语S(Subject)

动作的发出者,常为名词、代词、名词短语、位于句首

谓语V(predicate)

用来表示主语动作,常为名词

(1)分为及物动词Transitive verb(Vt.)和不及物动词Intransitive   verb(Vi.)

(2)系动词Linking verb (Linking V.):Be动词和感官动词。

宾语O(Object)

动作的接受者、有直接宾语Direct object和间接宾语Indirect object。直接宾语指动作的的直接对象,间接宾语说明动作的非直接

定语Att(Attribute)

用来修饰、限定说明名词或代词的品质和特征的

状语A(Adverbial)

用来修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句的词,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概念

补足语C(Complement)

用来修饰和限定宾语,做补足说明

表语P(Predicative)

对主语的身份、性质、品性、特征和状态的词,通常是形容词

同位语App

(appositive)

当两个指同一事物的句子成分挡在同等位置时,一个句子成分可被用来说明或解释另一个句子成分,前者就叫作后者的同位语

 

6大句型

主语+谓语

Lily is coming.

主语+谓语+宾语

They are playing football.

主语+系动词+表语

My hometown is beautiful.

主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语

English teacher gave me a dictionary.

主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

He found his wallet lost.

There be句型

There is a river in front of school.

 

句子种类

陈述句(Declarative Sentence)

说明一个事实或陈述一种看法

疑问句(Interrogative Sentence)

用来提出问题:

【一般疑问句】Do you see my wallet?

【特殊疑问句】Who is over there?

【选择疑问句】Do you want orange or apple?

【反义疑问句】You know him, don’t you?

感叹句(Exclamatory Sentence)

表示说话人惊奇、喜悦、愤怒等情绪

【What引导】 What a clever boy [he is]!

【How引导】How beautiful a girl [she is]!

祈使句(Imperative Sentence)

用来提出请求、建议或发出命令

【肯定祈使句】Be careful!

【否定祈使句】Don’t smoke!

 

句子结构

简单句(Simple Sentence)

只包含一个主谓结构的句子。

【She likes music.】(主+谓+宾)

并列句(Compound Sentence)

包含两个或两个以上主谓结构的句子叫做并列句句子和句子之间通常用并列连词或分号来连接

【The food was good, but he had little  appetite.】(主+系+连接词+主谓)

复合句(Complex Sentence)

包含一个主句从句和一个或者几个从句的句子,从句由从属连词引导

【The film had begunwhen//we got to the cinema.】(主句+从属连词+从句)

 

3大从句

名词性从句

在句子中起名词作用的句子叫名词从句(Noun Clauses)。一般名词从句的功能相当于名词词组,在复合句中能担任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语等

定语从句

在复合句中,修饰名词或代词的从句叫定语从句,被修饰的名词或代词叫先行词,引导定语从句的有关系代词:who,whom,whose,which,that等和关系副词where,when,why等,关系代词和关系副词在定语从句中担任句子成分

状语从句

由从句担任的状语,在句子中可修饰谓语(或其他动词)、形容词、副词或是整个句子,可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步等

 

12大时态

一般现在时

I am a teacher.

一般过去时

I was happy this time yesterday.

一般将来时

There will be a bad news for you.

过去将来时【表示从过去的某个时间来看将要发生的事情】(would/should do)

He said he would finish the work.

现在进行时【表示现在进行的动作或存在的状态】be doing

He is playing basketball.

过去进行时【表示过去的一个具体时间正在发生的动词】was/were doing

I was watching TV at eight last night.

将来进行时【表示在将来正在发生的动作】will be doing

I will be playing game tomorrow.

现在完成时【表示动作已经完成或刚刚完成】have done

I have already finished my homework.

过去完成时【表示过去发生已经完成的动作】had done

He found the wallet that Mike had lost.

将来完成时【表示在将来某一时间以前已经完成或一直持续的动作】   will have done

He will have finished the task the time next   month.

过去将来完成时【表示从过去观点看将来某时某动作已完成】   should have done/ would   have done

If I had left earlier I could have caught the   bus.

现在完成进行时【表示从过去开始的某一动作,延续至今,或将持续下去】have been doing

How long have you been playing game?

将来完成进行时【表示某种状况一直持续到说话人所提及的时间】shall have been doing/will have been doing

By the end of next year, I will have been   teaching for 8 years.

过去完成进行时【相对过去的某个时刻来说已经对现在有直接影响并还在进行的动作】had been

We had been watching TV when you came in.

过去将来进行时【表示就过去某一时间而言,将来某一时刻或某一段时间正在进行的动作】should be doing/would be doing

Mike told me that he would be going to Beijing.

过去将来完成进行时【表示动作从过去某一时间开始一直延续到对于过去来说的将来某一时间】should have been doing/would have been doing

By the end of this year I will have been living in   Beijing for five years.

 

语态

8种时态的被动语态(be+过去分词)

一般现在时——am/is/are+过去分词

The desk is made by him.

一般过去式——was/were+过去分词

The glass is broken just now.

一般将来时——will be+过去分词

The food will be given to the poor.

过去将来时——would be+过去分词

The girl said the book would be sent to other   place by the end of the year.

现在进行时——am/is/are being+过去分词

The task is being carried out.

过去进行时——was/were being+过去分词

The building was being built this time last   month.

现在完成时——have/has been+过去分词

The task has been finished.

过去完成时——had been+过去分词

When I got home,I had my key lost.

 

虚拟语气【指不可能实现的愿望或与事实相反的情况,而不表示客观存在的事实】

含有if条件句的主从句的虚拟语气

If given more time, I could do better.

Wish后面的宾语从句用虚拟语气

I wish I were rich.

If only后面的句子用虚拟语气

If only he would listen my advice!

as if(though)从句用虚拟语气

He acts as if he knew everyone.

it's(high/about)time后的从句用虚拟语气

It’s time we ordered dinner.

Would rather后句子用虚拟语气

I’d rather you hadn’t told me the truth.

 

非谓语

不定式to+动词原形,作主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语和补语

主语:常用it作形式主语【It's   important to finish your homework in time.】

宾语:作及物动词、形容词的宾语【He   wants to be a doctor.】

表语:谓语be之后作表语【His dream   is to be a teacher.】

宾语补足语:在复合宾语中充当宾语补足语,如以下动词【want,wish,ask,tell,order,help,allow,invite】

定语:不定时作定语,位于所修饰的名词或代词后。【I have a job to do.】

状语:表目的、结果、原因、程度【He   were so happy to see her.】

动名词:表示的动作是一个被动的或是已完成的动作,在句中作某种成分时,逻辑主语一般为该分词表示的动作的承受者。作表语、定语、状语和补语

主语:Reading more is very helpful.

表语:His job is helping the poor.

宾语:We have to protect the earth from polluting.

定语:The boy standing under the tree is my friend.

状语:Being ill, she didn’t go to school last week.

过去分词:所表示的动词是一个动作或是已完成的动作。

作主语、宾语、表语、定语

定语:The wallet was found under the car.

表语:The desk is broken.

宾语补足语:I have my phone repaired two days ago.

状语:if given more time/Given more time, I could fix it.


语法固然难学,但只要厘清了其中的逻辑关系,一切便可迎刃而解。以上基本上包括了所有语法知识大点,希望对想提升英语能力的同学有所有帮助!更多细节知识还待同学们继续学习巩固。有不懂的可以评论提问或私信噢,更多考研相关问题欢迎咨询海文考研

 

 

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