Section I Use of English
Read the following text.Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank.and mark[A]，[B]，[C]or[D]on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
In 1924 American National Research Council sent to engineer to supervise a series of experiments at a telephone-parts factory called the Hawthorne Plant near Chicago. It hoped they would learn how stop-floor lighting __1__ workers productivity. Instead，the studies ended__2__ giving their name to the “Hawthorne effect” the extremely influential idea the very__3__to being experimented upon changed subjects’ behavior
The idea arose because of the__4__behavior of the women in the plant.According to __5__of the experiments their hourly output rose when lighting was increased, but also when it was dimmed. It did not __6__what was done in the experiment. __7__something was changed productivity rose . A(n) __8__ that they were being experimented upon seemed to be __9__to alter workers' behavior __10__ itself
After several decades，the same data were __11__to econometric the analysis Hawthorne experiments has another surprise store 12 the descriptions on record，no systematic __13__was found that levels of productivity were related to changes in lighting
It turns out that peculiar way of conducting the experiments may be have let to __14__interpretation of what happened.__15__，lighting was always changed on a Sunday When work started again on Monday, output __16__ rose compared with the previous Saturday and __17__ to rise for the next couple of days __18__ ，a comparison with data for weeks when there was no experimentation showed that output always went up on Monday, workers __19__to be diligent for the first few days of the week in any case，before __20__a plateau and then slackening off. This suggests that the alleged “Hawthorne effect” is hard to pin down
1.[A] affected [B]achieved [C]extracted [D]restored
2. [A]at [B]up [C]with [D]off
3. [A]truth [B]sight [C]act [D]proof
4. [A]controversial [B]perplexing [C]mischievous [D]ambiguous
5. [A]requirements [B]explanations [C]accounts [D]assessments
6. [A]conclude [B]matter [C]indicate [D]work
7. [A]as far as [B]for fear that [C]in case that [D]so long as
8. [A]awareness [B]expectation [C]sentiment [D]illusion
9. [A]suitable [B]excessive [C]enough [D]abundant
10. [A]about [B]for [C]on [D]by
11. [A]compared [B]shown [C]subjected [D]conveyed
12. [A]contrary to [B]consistent with [C]parallel with [D]peculiar to
13.[A]evidence [B]guidance [C]implication [D]source
14.[A]disputable [B]enlightening [C]reliable [D]misleading
15.[A]In contrast [B]For example [C]In consequence [D]As usual
16. [A]duly [B]accidentally [C]unpredictably [D]suddenly
17. [A]failed [B]ceased [C]started [D]continued
20.[A]breaking [B]climbing [C]surpassing [D]hitting
Section II Reading Comprehension
Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing [A], [B], [C] or [D]. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
Of all the changes that have taken place in English-language newspapers during the past quarter-century, perhaps the most far-reaching has been the inexorable decline in the scope and seriousness of their arts coverage.
It is difficult to the point of impossibility for the average reader under the age of forty to imagine a time when high-quality arts criticism could be found in most big-city newspapers. Yet a considerable number of the most significant collections of criticism published in the 20th century consisted in large part of newspaper reviews. To read such books today is to marvel at the fact that their learned contents were once deemed suitable for publication in general-circulation dailies.
We are even farther removed from the unfocused newspaper reviews published in England between the turn of the 20th century and the eve of World War II, at a time when newsprint was dirt-cheap and stylish arts criticism was considered an ornament to the publications in which it appeared. In those far-off days, it was taken for granted that the critics of major papers would write in detail and at length about the events they covered. Theirs was a serious business, and even those reviewers who wore their learning lightly, like George Bernard Shaw and Ernest Newman, could be trusted to know what they were about. These men believed in journalism as a calling, and were proud to be published in the daily press. "So few authors have brains enough or literary gift enough to keep their own end up in journalism," Newman wrote, "that I am tempted to define 'journalism' as 'a term of contempt applied by writers who are not read to writers who are.'"
Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket. During his lifetime, though, he was also one of England's foremost classical-music critics, a stylist so widely admired that his Autobiography (1947) became a best-seller. He was knighted in 1967, the first music critic to be so honored. Yet only one of his books is now in print, and his vast body of writings on music is unknown save to specialists.
Is there any chance that Cardus's criticism will enjoy a revival? The prospect seems remote. Journalistic tastes had changed long before his death, and postmodern readers have little use for the richly upholstered Vicwardian prose in which he specialized. Moreover, the amateur tradition in music criticism has been in headlong retreat.
21. It is indicated in Paragraphs 1 and 2 that
[A] arts criticism has disappeared from big-city newspapers.
[B] English-language newspapers used to carry more arts reviews.
[C] high-quality newspapers retain a large body of readers.
[D] young readers doubt the suitability of criticism on dailies.
22. Newspaper reviews in England before World War II were characterized by
[A] free themes.
[B] casual style.
[C] elaborate layout.
[D] radical viewpoints.
23. Which of the following would Shaw and Newman most probably agree on?
[A] It is writers' duty to fulfill journalistic goals.
[B] It is contemptible for writers to be journalists.
[C] Writers are likely to be tempted into journalism.
[D] Not all writers are capable of journalistic writing.
24. What can be learned about Cardus according to the last two paragraphs?
[A] His music criticism may not appeal to readers today.
[B] His reputation as a music critic has long been in dispute.
[C] His style caters largely to modern specialists.
[D] His writings fail to follow the amateur tradition.
25. What would be the best title for the text?
[A] Newspapers of the Good Old Days
[B] The Lost Horizon in Newspapers
[C] Mournful Decline of Journalism
[D] Prominent Critics in Memory
Over the past decade, thousands of patents have been granted for what are called business methods. Amazon.com received one for its "one-click" online payment system. Merrill Lynch got legal protection for an asset allocation strategy. One inventor patented a technique for lifting a box.
Now the nation's top patent court appears completely ready to scale back on business-method patents, which have been controversial ever since they were first authorized 10 years ago. In a move that has intellectual-property lawyers abuzz the U.S. court of Appeals for the federal circuit said it would use a particular case to conduct a broad review of business-method patents. In re Bilski, as the case is known , is "a very big deal", says Dennis D. Crouch of the University of Missouri School of law. It "has the potential to eliminate an entire class of patents."
Curbs on business-method claims would be a dramatic about-face, because it was the federal circuit itself that introduced such patents with is 1998 decision in the so-called state Street Bank case, approving a patent on a way of pooling mutual-fund assets. That ruling produced an explosion in business-method patent filings, initially by emerging internet companies trying to stake out exclusive rights to specific types of online transactions. Later, move established companies raced to add such patents to their files, if only as a defensive move against rivals that might beat them to the punch. In 2005, IBM noted in a court filing that it had been issued more than 300 business-method patents despite the fact that it questioned the legal basis for granting them. Similarly, some Wall Street investment films armed themselves with patents for financial products, even as they took positions in court cases opposing the practice.
The Bilski case involves a claimed patent on a method for hedging risk in the energy market. The Federal circuit issued an unusual order stating that the case would be heard by all 12 of the court's judges, rather than a typical panel of three, and that one issue it wants to evaluate is whether it should "reconsider" its state street Bank ruling.
The Federal Circuit's action comes in the wake of a series of recent decisions by the supreme Court that has narrowed the scope of protections for patent holders. Last April, for example the justices signaled that too many patents were being upheld for "inventions" that are obvious. The judges on the Federal circuit are "reacting to the anti-patent trend at the Supreme Court", says Harold C. Wegner, a patent attorney and professor at George Washington University Law School.
26. Business-method patents have recently aroused concern because of
[A] their limited value to business
[B] their connection with asset allocation
[C] the possible restriction on their granting
[D] the controversy over authorization
27. Which of the following is true of the Bilski case?
[A] Its ruling complies with the court decisions
[B] It involves a very big business transaction
[C] It has been dismissed by the Federal Circuit
[D] It may change the legal practices in the U.S.
28. The word "about-face" (Line 1, Para 3) most probably means
[A] loss of good will
[B] increase of hostility
[C] change of attitude
[D] enhancement of dignity
29. We learn from the last two paragraphs that business-method patents
[A] are immune to legal challenges
[B] are often unnecessarily issued
[C] lower the esteem for patent holders
[D] increase the incidence of risks
30. Which of the following would be the subject of the text?
[A] A looming threat to business-method patents
[B] Protection for business-method patent holders
[C] A legal case regarding business-method patents
[D] A prevailing trend against business-method patents
In his book The Tipping Point, Malcolm Gladwell argues that social epidemics are driven in large part by the acting of a tiny minority of special individuals, often called influentials, who are unusually informed, persuasive, or well-connected. The idea is intuitively compelling, but it doesn't explain how ideas actually spread.
The supposed importance of influentials derives from a plausible sounding but largely untested theory called the "two step flow of communication": Information flows from the media to the influentials and from them to everyone else. Marketers have embraced the two-step flow because it suggests that if they can just find and influence the influentials, those selected people will do most of the work for them. The theory also seems to explain the sudden and unexpected popularity of certain looks, brands, or neighborhoods. In many such cases, a cursory search for causes finds that some small group of people was wearing, promoting, or developing whatever it is before anyone else paid attention. Anecdotal evidence of this kind fits nicely with the idea that only certain special people can drive trends
In their recent work, however, some researchers have come up with the finding that influentials have far less impact on social epidemics than is generally supposed. In fact, they don't seem to be required of all.
The researchers' argument stems from a simple observing about social influence, with the exception of a few celebrities like Oprah Winfrey-whose outsize presence is primarily a function of media, not interpersonal, influence-even the most influential members of a population simply don't interact with that many others. Yet it is precisely these non-celebrity influentials who, according to the two-step-flow theory, are supposed to drive social epidemics by influencing their friends and colleagues directly. For a social epidemic to occur, however, each person so affected, must then influence his or her own acquaintances, who must in turn influence theirs, and so on; and just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with the initial influential. If people in the network just two degrees removed from the initial influential prove resistant, for example from the initial influential prove resistant, for example the cascade of change won't propagate very far or affect many people.
Building on the basic truth about interpersonal influence, the researchers studied the dynamics of populations manipulating a number of variables relating of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people's ability to influence others and their tendency to be influenced. Our work shows that the principal requirement for what we call "global cascades"- the widespread propagation of influence through networks - is the presence not of a few influentials but, rather, of a critical mass of easily influenced people, each of whom adopts, say, a look or a brand after being exposed to a single adopting neighbor. Regardless of how influential an individual is locally, he or she can exert global influence only if this critical mass is available to propagate a chain reaction.
31. By citing the book The Tipping Point, the author intends to
[A] analyze the consequences of social epidemics
[B] discuss influentials' function in spreading ideas
[C] exemplify people's intuitive response to social epidemics
[D] describe the essential characteristics of influentials.
32. The author suggests that the "two-step-flow theory"
[A] serves as a solution to marketing problems
[B] has helped explain certain prevalent trends
[C] has won support from influentials
[D] requires solid evidence for its validity
33. What the researchers have observed recently shows that
[A] the power of influence goes with social interactions
[B] interpersonal links can be enhanced through the media
[C] influentials have more channels to reach the public
[D] most celebrities enjoy wide media attention
34. The underlined phrase "these people" in paragraph 4 refers to the ones who
[A] stay outside the network of social influence
[B] have little contact with the source of influence
[C] are influenced and then influence others
[D] are influenced by the initial influential
35. what is the essential element in the dynamics of social influence?
[A] The eagerness to be accepted
[B] The impulse to influence others
[C] The readiness to be influenced
[D] The inclination to rely on others
Bankers have been blaming themselves for their troubles in public. Behind the scenes, they have been taking aim at someone else: the accounting standard-setters. Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report enormous losses, and it's just not fair. These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch.
Unfortunately, banks' lobbying now seems to be working. The details may be unknowable, but the independence of standard-setters, essential to the proper functioning of capital markets, is being compromised. And, unless banks carry toxic assets at prices that attract buyers, reviving the banking system will be difficult.
After a bruising encounter with Congress, America's Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) rushed through rule changes. These gave banks more freedom to use models to value illiquid assets and more flexibility in recognizing losses on long-term assets in their income statement. Bob Herz, the FASB's chairman, cried out against those who "question our motives." Yet bank shares rose and the changes enhance what one lobby group politely calls "the use of judgment by management."
European ministers instantly demanded that the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) do likewise. The IASB says it does not want to act without overall planning, but the pressure to fold when it completes it reconstruction of rules later this year is strong. Charlie McCreevy, a European commissioner, warned the IASB that it did "not live in a political vacuum" but "in the real word" and that Europe could yet develop different rules.
It was banks that were on the wrong planet, with accounts that vastly overvalued assets. Today they argue that market prices overstate losses, because they largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of markets, not the likely extent of bad debts. The truth will not be known for years. But bank's shares trade below their book value, suggesting that investors are skeptical. And dead markets partly reflect the paralysis of banks which will not sell assets for fear of booking losses, yet are reluctant to buy all those supposed bargains.
To get the system working again, losses must be recognized and dealt with. America's new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive. Successful markets require independent and even combative standard-setters. The FASB and IASB have been exactly that, cleaning up rules on stock options and pensions, for example, against hostility from special interests. But by giving in to critics now they are inviting pressure to make more concessions.
36. Bankers complained that they were forced to
[A] follow unfavorable asset evaluation rules
[B] collect payments from third parties
[C] cooperate with the price managers
[D] reevaluate some of their assets.
37. According to the author , the rule changes of the FASB may result in
[A] the diminishing role of management
[B] the revival of the banking system
[C] the banks' long-term asset losses
[D] the weakening of its independence
38. According to Paragraph 4, McCreevy objects to the IASB's attempt to
[A] keep away from political influences.
[B] evade the pressure from their peers.
[C] act on their own in rule-setting.
[D] take gradual measures in reform.
39. The author thinks the banks were "on the wrong planet" in that they
[A] misinterpreted market price indicators
[B] exaggerated the real value of their assets
[C] neglected the likely existence of bad debts.
[D] denied booking losses in their sale of assets.
40. The author's attitude towards standard-setters is one of
For Questions 41-45, choose the most suitable paragraphs from the list A-G and fill them into the numbered boxes to form a coherent text. Paragraph E has been correctly placed. There is one paragraph which does not fit in with the text. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET1. (10 points)
[A] The first and more important is the consumer's growing preference for eating out; the consumption of food and drink in places other than homes has risen from about 32 percent of total consumption in 1995 to 35 percent in 2000 and is expected to approach 38 percent by 2005. This development is boosting wholesale demand from the food service segment by 4 to 5 percent a year across Europe, compared with growth in retail demand of 1 to 2 percent. Meanwhile, as the recession is looming large, people are getting anxious. They tend to keep a tighter hold on their purse and consider eating at home a realistic alternative.
[B] Retail sales of food and drink in Europe's largest markets are at a standstill, leaving European grocery retailers hungry for opportunities to grow. Most leading retailers have already tried e-commerce, with limited success, and expansion abroad. But almost all have ignored the big, profitable opportunity in their own backyard: the wholesale food and drink trade, which appears to be just the kind of market retailers need.
[C] Will such variations bring about a change in the overall structure of the food and drink market? Definitely not. The functioning of the market is based on flexible trends dominated by potential buyers. In other words, it is up to the buyer, rather than the seller, to decide what to buy .At any rate, this change will ultimately be acclaimed by an ever-growing number of both domestic and international consumers, regardless of how long the current consumer pattern will take hold.
[D] All in all, this clearly seems to be a market in which big retailers could profitably apply their scale, existing infrastructure and proven skills in the management of product ranges, logistics, and marketing intelligence. Retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe may well expect to rake in substantial profits thereby. At least, that is how it looks as a whole. Closer inspection reveals important differences among the biggest national markets, especially in their customer segments and wholesale structures, as well as the competitive dynamics of individual food and drink categories. Big retailers must understand these differences before they can identify the segments of European wholesaling in which their particular abilities might unseat smaller but entrenched competitors. New skills and unfamiliar business models are needed too.
[E] Despite variations in detail, wholesale markets in the countries that have been closely examined-France, Germany, Italy, and Spain-are made out of the same building blocks. Demand comes mainly from two sources: independent mom-and-pop grocery stores which, unlike large retail chains, are two small to buy straight from producers, and food service operators that cater to consumers when they don't eat at home. Such food service operators range from snack machines to large institutional catering ventures, but most of these businesses are known in the trade as "horeca": hotels, restaurants, and cafes. Overall, Europe's wholesale market for food and drink is growing at the same sluggish pace as the retail market, but the figures, when added together, mask two opposing trends.
[F] For example, wholesale food and drink sales come to $268 billion in France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom in 2000-more than 40 percent of retail sales. Moreover, average overall margins are higher in wholesale than in retail; wholesale demand from the food service sector is growing quickly as more Europeans eat out more often; and changes in the competitive dynamics of this fragmented industry are at last making it feasible for wholesalers to consolidate.
[G] However, none of these requirements should deter large retailers (and even some large good producers and existing wholesalers) from trying their hand, for those that master the intricacies of wholesaling in Europe stand to reap considerable gains.
Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written carefully on ANSWER SHEET 2. (10 points)
One basic weakness in a conservation system based wholly on economic motives is that most members of the land community have no economic value. Yet these creatures are members of the biotic community and, if its stability depends on its integrity, they are entitled to continuance.
When one of these noneconomic categories is threatened and, if we happen to love it .We invert excuses to give it economic importance. At the beginning of century songbirds were supposed to be disappearing. (46) Scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them. the evidence had to be economic in order to be valid.
It is painful to read these round about accounts today. We have no land ethic yet, (47) but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
A parallel situation exists in respect of predatory mammals and fish-eating birds. (48) Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak, or that they prey only on "worthless" species.
Some species of tree have been read out of the party by economics-minded foresters because they grow too slowly, or have too low a sale vale to pay as timber crops. (49) In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such, within reason.
To sum up: a system of conservation based solely on economic self-interest is hopelessly lopsided. (50) It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning. It assumes, falsely, I think, that the economic parts of the biotic clock will function without the uneconomic parts.
Section Ⅲ Writing
You are supposed to write for the postgraduate association a notice to recruit volunteers for an international conference on globalization, you should conclude the basic qualification of applicant and the other information you think relative.
You should write about 100 words. Do not sign your own name at the end of the letter. Use "postgraduate association" instead.
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) explain its intended meaning, and then
3) give your comments.
You should write neatly on ANSHWER SHEET 2. (20 points)
Section I Use of English
1 ． A
解析： A 项 affect 意思是“影响，感动”； B 项 achieve 意思是“达成，完成”； C 项 extract 意思是“提取，榨出”； D 项 restore 是“恢复，重建” . 这句话的意思是：他们想通过实验探究车间照明是如何影响工人的生产率的，所以答案是 A 。
2 ． B
解析：本题考查了固定短语 end up 的用法， end up 意思是“最终成为……”， end 和其它三个介词的搭配都无此意，故选 B 。
3 ． C
解析：本句的大意为：研究最终总结为一个极具影响力的概念—“霍桑效应”，也正是实验所研究的行为改变了工人们的表现。所以这里应选择 C 。
4 ． B
解析： 作者这里表达的意思是这个问题之所以引起大家的注意是因为工厂女工的行为令人费解。四个选项中 perplexing 意为“令人费解的”，所以正确答案为 B 。
5 ． C
解析：本句的含义是：根据研究描述，当照明灯变亮或变暗时，工人的时产量就会提高。四个选项中有描述含义的是 C 项 accounts 。
6 ． B
解析：这句话的意思是：实验中做什么并不重要。 Do not matter 固定表达，故选 B 。
7 ． D
解析：考查 so long as 短语，意思是“只有”，句子意思是：只要有改变，生产率就会上升。
8 ． A
解析： A 项 awareness 意思是“意识”， B 项 expectation 意为“期望”， C 项 sentiment 意为“”观点，意见， D 项 illusion 为“幻觉”，本句的大意是说：工人知到自己本身是被研究对象 - 这一意识就足以改变他们的行为。所以选 A 。
9 ． C
解析：见第 8 题解析。
10 ． D
解析：见第 8 题解析。
11 ． C
解析： be subjected to 表示“服从于，与……一致 ’ ，为固定短语。
12 ． A
解析： contrary to 表示“与 … 相反“。根据语境提示，空白处需要填写一个能表示转折意味的链接词。
13 ． A
解析： 只有 evidence 一词可与 found 呼应，表示“发现或找到证据”。
14 ． D
15 ． B
解析： for example 与上句呼应，举例说明问题。
16 ． A
解析： duly 表示“准时地，在同一个时间地”，填入句中后意思表达更精确。
17 ． D
解析： 与前句 duly rose 呼应，递进说明问题，故应选 continue 。
18 ． C
解析： 此句意思与上句相反，说明另一种情况，故应使用转折词 but 。
19 ． B
解析： tend to do “倾向于做某事”，说明一种常规的事实。
20 ． D
解析： hit 能与 a plateau 搭配，意为“到达高地，触及顶点”，句意才符合语境。
Section II Reading Comprehension
21 ． B
22 ． A
23 ． C
24 ． A
25 ． B
26 ． C
解析： 细节题。题干问及商业专利方法在最近引起关注的原因是是什么，解答本题应定位二段首句并结合一段的主旨要义。二段首句指出“国家最高专利法庭准备对商业方法专利进行缩减，这引起了了争议。”一段主要提及在过去 10 年商业方法授予了成千上万的专利。由此可见，选项 C 是对原文的同义置换故为正确答案。
27 ． B
解析： 推理判断题。文章在二段提及 Bilski case ，在四段提及对 Bilski case 的结论性说明，在四段中针对 Bilski case ，联邦机构发表了不同寻常的法令，而四段末句提到该法令引起对“ state street Bank ruling ”的是否重新考虑，由此可知 B 为正确答案。
28 ． C
解析： 词汇短语题。含有该词的句子起到承前启后作用，解答本题应结合二段主旨及三段 because 后的句意来解题，二段提及“国家最高专利法庭准备对商业方法专利进行缩减”，而三段提及 introduced such patents…, approving a patent…, 由此可知，宣称对商业方法的控制将会有巨大的态度转变，故 C 正确。
29 ． B
解析： 推论题。结合倒数二段二句及末段首句可知 B 符合文意。此题用排除法最为便利。文章的最后两段未提到 ACD 的内容。而 B 项的内容符合“ that too many patents were being upheld ”，同时 B 选项的内容符合文章的中心。
30 ． A
解析： 主旨题。文章首段提到“过去 10 年”，而二段首句转到“ Now ”，文章的此脉络结构可知“ A looming threat ”可统领文意，此外文章二至四段，主要谈及联邦巡讲对“ business-method patents ”的立场变化，故 A 为正确答案。
31 ． B
解析：细节题。文章提到 Tipping Point 真本书描述社会流行风潮是由一小部分名人引起的，然而，笔锋一转在首段末又说“ it doesn’t explain how ideas actually spread ” . 进而引出作者对名人传播想法功能的讨论。由此 B 选项正确。而 A 、 C 、 D 均不是作者要讨论的问题。
32 ． D
解析：细节题。文章第二段首句 “the supposed…plausible sounding but largely untested theory..” 以及末句“ …only certain special people can drive trends ”充分说明这种理论证据不够充足。而 D 选项正确的反应了文中的内容。
33 ． A
解析：根据题干，线索大致定位到第三段，但是第三段并没有清晰的找到题解，而接下来的第四段清晰的反应出了社会互动所产生的巨大影响这一内容。 A 选项充分的表明了这一点。
34 ． C
解析：根据题干，线索定位到第四段。同过分析这个短语所在的句子，“ For a social epidemic…;just how many others pay attention to each of these people has little to do with… ”此句主要表明人们是如何被别人影响进而又去影响别人的。而 C 选项恰是对这一点的正确表述。
35 ． C
解析：细节题。根据题干，线索定位到最后一段，从“ …relating of populations, manipulating a number of variables relating to people’s ability to influence others and their tendency to be…” 这句话中能够得知社会影响动力因素包括人们影响别人的能力包括被别人影响的倾向性。而 C 选项充分的体现了这一点。
36 ． A
由题干中的 “ Bankers complained ” 和 “ force ” 定位于第一段第三行 “ Their rules, moan the banks, have forced them to report enormous losses, and it’s just not fair. These rules say they must value some assets at the price a third party would pay, not the price managers and regulators would like them to fetch. ” 该句核心词为 rules ，四个答案中只有 A 选项包含。
37 ． A
解析：推理引申题。答案意为“管理的作用的逐渐消失”。根据题干中的专有名词 FASB 定位于第三段。第一句提到 FASB 经过努力使国会通过了一些变革，这些变革赋予了银行更多的权利，也就是说对银行的管理更为松散，所以答案为“管理的作用的逐渐消失”。
38 ． C
解析：细节题。答案意为“独立自主的制定法规”。根据题干中的 “M cCreevy objects to ” 定位到第五段。第五段提到立即根据美国的变化做出一样的反应，欧洲的各界人士对此的反对十分强烈，引用 M cCreevy 的话是为了说明这一点：欧洲要对这个问题有自己独立的法律法规。
39 ． C
解析：句意题。答案意为“忽视了坏账存在的极大可能性”。根据题干的信息定位到第六段 Today they argue that market prices overstate losses, because they largely reflect the temporary illiquidity of markets, not the likely extent of bad debts. 批判银行一味的夸大“ that market prices overstate losses ”，而忽视了“ the likely extent of bad debts ”。
40 ． D
解析：情感态度题。文章讨论了银行针对“ standard-setters ”的敌意行为，特别是文章最后一段更是明确的表明了作者对“ standard-setters ”的同情。
41 ． B
解析：本题需要找出文章的首段，可用排除法做。首先 A 选项中提到“ the first and more important…” 中的 “ more” 应该在前文中提到，故排除。 B 选项首句就提出了欧洲食品零售所面临的问题，根据文章结构法：提出问题 — 分析问题 — 解决问题，此段符合首段要求，即提出了文章的中心问题，而且本选项中也没有明显的需要和上文衔接的关系词，而其它选项都有明显的与上文衔接的信息词，不能在首段出现，故 B 为正确答案。
42 ． F
解析：首段一旦确定，本段内容便可根据上文顺藤摸瓜，第一段最后一句话“ but” 后指出了虽然食品零售商面临着“ at a standstill ( 几乎停止发展 )” 的问题，他们却忽略了一个潜在的市场即他们身边的 “wholesale food and trade( 食品批发市场 )” 。而 F 选项首句便举例说明法国、德国、意大利等国家的食品批发产业的市场规模比食品零售产业要大 40% 。而且在“ moreover” 后又进一步说明批发的利润大零售很多。因此可以判断此选项是对第一段的例证说明。其中 “ for example” 是明显的信息提示词。
43 ． D
解析：上段介绍了食品批发商的优势，而 D 选项第一句“ All in all, this clearly seems to be a market in which…” 则对上文的内容进行总结，其中 all in all 是较明显的信息提示词，即上文中提到的食品批发的优势推出这是明显对于 “ big retailers that master the intricacies of wholesaling” 是一个“ market” 。因此 D 项为正确答案。
44 ． G
解析：上段最后一句提出的“ particular abilities” 以及“ new skills and unfamiliar business models are needed.” , 即零售商需要新的技能及不熟悉的商业模式。而 G 选项第一句提到的 “ these requirements （这些要求） ” 正是指上文所提到的技能。
45 ． A
解析：此题可以用排除法做，所剩下的选项只有 A 和 C ，需要注意的是本题并没有明显的信息词，所以需要阅读选项的内容进而找出正确答案。此题前文的已知段落 E 选项中最后一句“ two opposing trends” 在 A 选项中得到了体现，即一方面由于人们选择在外就餐而扩大了食品批发的需求，而另一方面人们又开始感到“ anxious( 焦虑 ) ”。而 C 选项第一句提到的“ such variations” 在上文中并没有得到体现，因此可以断定 A 为正确答案。
46. Scinentists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence to the effect that insects would eat us up if birds failed to control them.
解析： 句子的主干是 “scientists jumped to the rescue with some distinctly shaky evidence” ，后接 that 引导的同位语从句。 If 引导的条件状语从句修饰 that 从句。 to the effect that 大意是，意思是 ; fail to 未能； jump to 立即，赶快 the rescue 营救 , 援救，解救。
47. but we have at least drawn near the point of admitting that birds should continue survival as a matter of intrinsic right, regardless of the presence or absence of economic advantage to us.
解析：句子主干 we have drawn near the point 。介词短语 of admitting that... 作定语修饰 point 。其中嵌套了 that 从句作 admit 的宾语从句。 regardless of... 作让步状语。 a matter of ..... 的问题，大约； draw near 接近，靠近； intrinsic right 天生的权利，固有的权利； economic advantage 经济利益，经济优势。
48. Time was when biologists somewhat over worded the evidence that these creatures preserve the health of game by killing the physically weak,or that they prey only on “worthless species.
解析：主干 time was when... 。 when 引导了表语从句。 Time was when 可看作固定短语，译为“ 从前，曾经” 。注意两个并列同位语从句的翻译。
参考译文：曾几何时，生物学家总是重述以下的这条证据：这些生物通过捕食弱小的动物去维持生物链的正常运行，或它们只是去捕食 “ 没有价值的物种 ” 。
49. In Europe, where forestry is ecologically more advanced, the non-commercial tree species are recognized as members of native forest community, to be preserved as such, within reason.
解析： 句子的主体是 “the noncommercial tree species are recognized as members of the native forest community” ，包含被动语态。句子开头是一个 where 引导的定语从句， to be preserved 是修饰 noncommercial tree species 的成分。 Within reason 合情合理的，理智的。注意被动语态的处理。
50. It tends to ignore, and thus eventually to eliminate, many elements in the land community that lack commercial value, but that are essential to its healthy functioning.
解析：句子主干“ It tends to ignore many elements ” ; 两个 that 从句意思上转折，句法上为并列的定语从句，修饰 the land community 。注意插入语、定语从句以及代词指代的处理。
Section III Writing
51 ． 小作文
以研究生会的名义写一封通知，通知的内容是为全球一体化的国际会议招募志愿者，这个通知必须包 aa 括申请者的基本职位要求及你认为相关的其他信息。写 100 个字左右，不要在通知末尾写你自己的名字，用“ Postgraduates ’ Association ”代替。
本次小作文考察 “ 通知 ” 这一事务公文， “ 通知 ” 的目的在于督促对方参加活动，具体来讲，是招募志愿者。结构上，只需写题目，正文，署名以及时间即可。语言上，语言应直截了当，简洁明了，可适当使用被动句表达。内容上，题目要求写招募职位，以及相关信息。关于职位，可写涉及前台接待、会场指引、乘车指引、英文翻译等服务的岗位。此外，还可以对志愿者提出要求，志愿者应该工作认真负责、积极主动，具有团队合作精神的，另外还需要沟通能力强，具有较好的英语口语和听力水平等。其他相关信息，可以提及会议时间，地点，将怎样安排志愿者等。
Volunteers for the International Conference of Global Integration are wanted. Anyone who is in good command of English and experienced in cross-cultural communication are expected to take part in this activity. The major task for this position are as follows: to begin with, to propaganda the theme of globalization to people all over the world; in addition, to provide E-C interpretation service to those representatives of the international conference, aiming at facilitating the process of the meeting; at last, you should be strictly available according to the time schedule of the conference. Those who are interested in this post are cordially welcome!
Jan. 9th, 2010
The International Conference of Global Integration will be held on September 23 at China Institute of International Studies, and twenty volunteers are wanted among the students in our school.
The positions recruited include receptionist, conference guider, transportation guider and English interpreter, and the volunteers are requested to speak fluent English and are expected to be active, open-minded and conscientious. All the volunteers will be trained for 5 days before the conference and provided with free transportation and meal.
For those who are interested in taking part in the activity, please send your resume to the email address: postgraduates @zju.cn before September 1 .
Jan. 9th, 2010
Postgraduates’ Association is recently looking for Volunteers for the International Conference of Global Integration . Applicants should be currently studying at the university, and should preferably have the experience of being a part-time volunteer in several international events.
The successful applicant will be expected to propaganda the theme of globalization in the city and on campus. The position will commence at the end of May and will last through to the end of August. Fair pay for the position is available and will be based on your experience.
If you are interested, please send your resume to the following email: postgraduates @zju.cn before September 1st .
Jan. 9th, 2010
52 ． 大作文
Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following drawing. In your essay, you should
1) describe the drawing briefly,
2) explain its intended meaning, and then
3) give your comments on the phenomenon.
You should write neatly on ANSWER SHEET 2.(20points)
提纲包括两点，一是描述图片并解释含义，二是对此现象作出评论。文章也可分为三段，第一段：描述图画，描述图片中的各类文化元素。可能用到的词汇是 literature, （文学） moral values （道德价值） performing arts （表演艺术）等。
第三段：对此现象做出评论。此评论部分可以提出建议，考虑背景及原因，或描述未来，预测未来，也可以讲世界文化融合、交流是时代的潮流 , 同时还要保持和振兴各族文化。
The enlightening picture portrays that a hot pot, with numerous ingredients in it, includes such domestic and alien cultures as literature, moral values and performing arts. It seems that the hot pot tastes very delicious because of the rich nutrition of the multi-cultural elements.
Obviously, the picture characterizes the status quo of Chinese society in which Chinese and Western culture conflict with each other but also merge into a unique form to a certain degree. Since China has opened its door widely to the outside world, many people from different countries have been deeply fascinated by Chinese culture. They will accept and love the Chinese culture as a whole. In addition, Chinese culture should be well shared with foreign people, who have shown their enthusiasm towards China. Meanwhile, the Chinese people are also exposed to foreign cultures when more foreign people come to this oriental country. In this way people from various nations in the world will be able to acquire better understanding of each other and live peacefully in this world.
In my opinion, the culture of any nation is a kind of precious heritage, and belongs to the whole mankind. With economic globalization, the blending of different cultures has become an inevitable trend of the time. No country is an isolated island, be it China or the western world. The clearer we grasp the current situation, the more it would be beneficial to the global villagers.