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2016年英语一真题及解析

2020-08-06 16:29
2016年英语一真题及解析

Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A,B,C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, __1 __ those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can __2__a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to __3 __ the marriage negotiations, or the young man’s parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection.__4__ , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. __5 __ a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying __6__ a good family.

  The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, __7__ by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and __8__ prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, __9__cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride’s and groom’s wrists, and __10__ a candle around a circle of happily married and respected couples to bless the __11__ . Newlyseds traditionally move in with the wife’s parents and may __12__ with them up to a year, __13__they can build a new house nearby.

  Divorce is legal and easy to __14__ ,but not common. Divoreced persons are __15__with some disapproval. Each spouse retains __16__ property he or she __17__ into the marriage, and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__ up: The divorced male doesn’t have a waiting period before he can remarry __20__ the woman must wait ten months.

  1. [A] by way of [B] on behalf of [C] as well as [D] with regard to

  [标准答案] [C] as well as

  [考点分析逻辑关系

  [选项分析因为考查逻辑关系,所以需要我们先对填空前后的原文信息做定位分析:空格处身处大环境not only…but also之中,这是一个明显的并列关系,表示不仅……而且……”,该空后面的those指代前文出现的“parents and friends”,显然“the young man”“the young woman”为并列关系,表示与他本人以及伴侣的父母朋友相关,所以答案只能是[C]as well as 也,又。[A]by way of 通过,[D]with regard to 关于,[B]on behalf of 代表。

  2. [A] adapt to [B] provide for [C] compete with [D] decide on

  [标准答案] [D] decide on

  [考点分析上下文语义

  [选项分析根据该句的主语a young man与宾语a likely spouse的关系,答案只能是[D]decide on“决定,表示自己决定自己的配偶。[B]provide for……提供准备……provide为及物动词,直接跟宾语,不需要加介词;[C]compete with“……竞争[A]adapt to“适用

  3. [A] close [B] remew [C] arrange [D] postpone

  [标准答案] [C] arrange

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析该句意思为:他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母_____婚姻谈判。四个选项中,[A]close 关闭;[B]renew 更新,恢复;[D]postpone 推迟;这三项语义不正确,只有[C]arrange“安排符合语境。

  4. [A] Above all [B] In theory [C] In time [D] For example

  [标准答案] [B] In theory

  [考点分析上下文语义

  [选项分析逻辑判断题主要是看前后两句的含义,前面说他可以自己选择自己中意的伴侣并让父母安排婚姻谈判,或者完全由父母选择对象,不给孩子选择的机会。空格后面说女方可以否决她父母所选择的对象。这两句之间显然是相反的关系,且有一个may,更证明[B]In theory“理论上说的正确性,而其他选项[A]Above all最重要的是,[C]In time 准时,[D]For example举例,均不符合题意。

  5. [A] Although [B] Lest [C] After [D] Unless

  [标准答案] [C] After

  [考点分析上下文语义

  [选项分析根据下文“______a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other…”可知,只有对象选择好后,父母才会去调查对方,显然表达的是时间先后顺序,所以只有after才对。其他选项[A]Although 尽管, [B]Lest 以免,唯恐,[D]Unless 除非,否则都不符合题意。

  6. [A] into [B] within [C] from [D] through

  [标准答案] [A] into

  [考点分析上下文语义及介词辨析

  [选项分析这里主要是看marry与相关介词的固定搭配及句意理解。这里marry into就是指通过婚姻得到[成为]……的一员,而其他选项均没有这层含义。

  7. [A] since [B] or [C] but [D] so

  [标准答案] [C] but

  [考点分析逻辑关系

  [选项分析根据上文以前婚礼会持续三天,出处句子意为到了20世纪80年代,婚礼只持续一天半,显然与前文发生转变,为对比关系,因此选择[C]but 但是。

  8. [A] copy [B] test [C] recite [D] create

  [标准答案] [C] recite

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析空格处需要填一个动词,和后面的prayers of blessing所搭配,[C]recite 吟诵、朗诵的意思,与所给短语搭配最为合理,译为吟诵祝福的祈祷文

  9. [A] folding [B] piling [C] wrapping [D] tying

  [标准答案] [D] tying

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析本题需要根据上下文语义分析,空格处需要搭配后文棉线,纵观四个选项[A]项 折叠,[B]项 堆积,[C]项 包裹,[D]项 系上,根据后文的“around the bride’s and groom’s wrists 在新郎和新娘的腰间,只有[D]将在圣水中浸过的棉线系在新郎和新娘的腰间符合句意。

  10. [A] passing [B] lighting [C] hiding [D] serving

  [标准答案] [A] passing

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析原文空格需要填写一个动词与后文“around a circle”来搭配,译为将蜡烛传一圈,故[A]传递为正确选项。[B]项 点亮,[C]项 隐藏,[D]项 服务。

11. [A] meeting [B] collection [C] association [D] union

  [标准答案] [D] union

  [考点分析名词辨析

  [选项分析本句语义为将蜡烛绕着幸福完婚和受人尊敬的夫妻传递一圈来祝福 [D]项 结合,引申为婚姻之意;根据语境,[D]项正确。

  12. [A] grow [B] part [C] deal [D] live

  [标准答案] [D] live

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析本题比较简单。根据语义根据传统,新婚夫妇要搬到妻子父母家,与父母____一年[D]生活为最佳答案。[C]项 交易,[B]项 分开,[A]项 成长。

  13. [A] whereas [B] until [C] if [D] for

  [标准答案] [B] until

  [考点分析时间逻辑关系

  [选项分析本句意为“_____他们在附近建造一栋新房子[A]项 然而,[B]项 直到,[D]项因为,[C]项 如果,结合前文新婚夫妇根据传统要和女方家人生活一年,前后存在一定的时间关系,[B]直到最符合原文语境,搭配最为合理。

  14. [A] avoid [B] follow [C] challenge [D] obtain

  [标准答案] [D] obtain

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] Divorce is legal and relatively easy to __14__, but not common. 该句句意为离婚是合法的,且相对容易____”[A]avoid避免,[B]follow跟随,[C]challenge挑战,质疑,[D]obtain获得,实现。根据关键词“legal”可知这里表达的是正面的意思,再根据句意选择[D]项。

  15. [A] isolated [B] persuaded [C] viewed [D] exposed

  [标准答案] [C] viewed

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词辨析

  [选项分析] Divorced persons are __15__ with some disapproval. 离婚的人 一些不认可。本段第一句提到离婚是合法的且相对容易得到批准,但是不常见。这句其实是在说明离婚并不常见的原因,[A]isolated孤立,[B]persuaded劝说,[C]viewed看待,[D]exposed接触,受到……的影响,[C]项最符合句意。

  16. [A] whereever [B] whatever [C] whenever [D] however

  [标准答案] [B] whatever

  [考点分析关系代词辨析

  [选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage. 17小题四个选项都是动词,所以该句意思为:夫妇双方保有财产,这个财产是他或她进婚姻的。结合[A]项 whereever“无论何地;任何(地方)=any place where(定从)”[B]项 whatever“无论什么;任何(东西)=anything that/any+N that”[C]项 whenever无论何时;任何时间=any time when[D]项 however无论如何;无论多么。根据语义,这里应该不是让步的关系,而且填的这个词还要能修饰property。因此,选择[B]项,等于retains any property that he or she……

  17. [A] changed [B] brought [C] shaped [D] pushed

  [标准答案] [B] brought

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词义辨析

  [选项分析] Each spouse retains ___16___ property he or she __17__ into the marriage,结合[A]项 changed“改变[B]项 brought “带来[C]项 shaped“形成[D]项 pushed“推,逼迫。结合语境只有[B]项符合句意,意为把财产带入婚姻

  18. [A] invested [B] divided [C] donated [D] withdrawn

  [标准答案] [B] divided

  [考点分析上下文语义及动词义辨析

  [选项分析] ...and jointly-acquired property is __18__ equally. 结合[A]invested投资;[B]divided分配;分开;[C]donated 捐赠;[D]withdrawn撤出,提取。根据语义应该是共同财产被(夫妻双方)平分,因此选择[B]项。

  19. [A] warms [B] clears [C] shows [D] breaks

  [标准答案] [C] shows

  [考点分析动词固定搭配

  [选项分析] Divorced persons may remarry, but a gender prejudice __19__up. 该句语义为离过婚的人或许会再婚,但是性别偏见 。[A]warm up加热,热身;[B]clear up(天气)变晴,收拾,消除;[C]show up显现;[D]break up分裂,分开;根据句意,选择[C]项。

  20. [A] while [B] so that [C] once [D] in that

  [标准答案] [A] while

  [选项分析上下文语义

  [考点分析本句句意为:离婚的男性再婚不需要等待期,女性必须等十个月。显然前后两句存在转折关系,只有[A]while“然而能够表达这个意思。

Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Text 1

  France, which prides itself as the global innovator of fashion, has decided its fashion industry has lost an absolute right to define physical beauty for women. Its lawmakers gave preliminary approval last week to a law that would make it a crime to employ ultra-thin models on runways.

  The parliament also agreed to ban websites that “incite excessive thinness” by promoting extreme dieting.

  Such measures have a couple of uplifting motives. They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. And the ban on ultra-thin models seems to go beyond protecting models from starving themselves to death - as some have done. It tells the fashion industry that it must take responsibility for the signal it sends women, especially teenage girls, about the social tape-measure they must use to determine their individual worth.

  The bans, if fully enforced, would suggest to women (and many men) that they should not let others be arbiters of their beauty. And perhaps faintly, they hint that people should look to intangible qualities like character and intellect rather than dieting their way to size zero or wasp-waist physiques.

  The French measures, however, rely too much on severe punishment to change a culture that still regards beauty as skin-deep — and bone-showing. Under the law, using a fashion model that does not meet a government-defined index of body mass could result in a $85,000 fine and six months in prison.

  The fashion industry knows it has an inherent problem in focusing on material adornment and idealized body types. In Denmark, the United States, and a few other countries, it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion images that rely more on peer pressure for enforcement.

  In contrast to France’s actions, Denmark’s fashion industry agreed last month on rules and sanctions regarding the age, health, and other characteristics of models. The newly revised Danish Fashion Ethical Charter clearly states: “We are aware of and take responsibility for the impact the fashion industry has on body ideals, especially on young people.’ The charter’s main tool of enforcement is to deny access for designers and modeling agencies to Copenhagen Fashion Week, which is run by the Danish Fashion Institute. But in general it relies on a name-and-shame method of compliance.

  Relying on ethical persuasion rather than law to address the misuse of body ideals may be the best step. Even better would be to help elevate notions of beauty beyond the material standards of a particular industry.

  21. According to the first paragraph, what would happen in France?

  [A] Physical beauty would be redefined.

  [B] New runways would be constructed.

  [C] Websites about dieting would thrive.

  [D] The fashion industry would decline.

  【答案】 [A] Physical beauty would be redefined

  【解析】 推断题。根据France定位到文章前两段,第一段讲法国决定时装业失去了定义(define)形体美(physical beauty)的绝对权力。法国的立法者通过了一项法律,雇用超瘦的模特属于犯罪,议会也禁止网站通过推崇极端节食鼓动过度瘦弱。第二段第二句提到“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. That’s a start. 他们建议美丽不应该以伤害身体健康为代价的外表来界定。由此可知,法国通过立法手段来改变法国时装业模特超瘦的现状,即[A]项的形体美将会被重新定义,是对原文内容的合理推断。[B]将会建造新的舞台[C]有关节食的网站将会兴起[D]时装业将会衰退,均不能从文中推测出来,属于无中生有

  22. The phrase “impinging on” (Line 2, Para 2) is closest in meaning to____

  [A] heightening the value of.

  [B] indicating the state of.

  [C] losing faith in.

  [D] doing harm to.

  【答案】 [D] doing harm to

  【解析】猜词题。定位到第二段第二句“They suggest beauty should not be defined by looks that end up impinging on health. 他们建议美丽不应该以 身体健康为代价的外表来界定。”impinging on后面的宾语为“health”,即对健康的某种影响。根据第二段第三句对超瘦模特的禁令似乎不仅仅是在防止模特挨饿致死——正如曾有人这么做过的,可见法国目前的对美丽的定义导致了有人为了保持身材,挨饿致死,因此推测出这一短语在这里的意思为侵犯,伤害[D]……有害正确。[A]增强了……的价值[B]反映了……的状态[C]……失去信心均不符合句意。

  23. Which of the following is true of the fashion industry?

  [A] The French measures have already failed.

  [B] New standards are being set in Denmark.

  [C] Model are no longer under peer pressure.

  [D] Its inherent problems are getting worse.

  【答案】 [B] New Standards are being set in Denmark

  【解析】细节题。根据第五段第二句话“In Denmark,...it is trying to set voluntary standards for models and fashion... 在丹麦,它正尝试为模特设定自愿的标准……”,可知[B]在丹麦新的标准正在被设定是对原文的同义替换。[A]法国的措施失败了[C]不再有来自同行执法的压力,文章第五段第二句后半